Archive for the ‘Silent Letters’ Category

Teaching Spelling – Affixes

Lesson 140.

Words ending in e silent, generally drop the e in adding ing.

mak’ing     seiz’ing   rul’ing      ex pir’ing
nam’ing     forc’ing   lin’ing      re fus’ing
plagu’ing   hedg’ing   squeez’ing   in trigu’ing
ach’ing     writ’ing   schem’ing    alleg’ing

The final e is retained when it is necessary to prevent a change of
pronunciation, or to maintain the identity of a word.

hoe’ing     shoe’ing    change’a ble
toe’ing     singe’ing   trace’able
tinge’ing   dye’ing     peace’a ble
foe’man     blue’ness   charge’a ble


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Spelling – Basic Spelling Rules – Dropping Final “E”s

If a word ends with a silent final “e” (bite, desire)

Drop the “e” if the suffix starts with a vowel (able, ing)
Keep the “e” if the suffix starts with a consonant (ty, full, less)

use + able = usable
use  + full = useful
sale + able = salable

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Basic Spelling Rules – The final e Rule
The final e Rule. Words ending with a silent e usually drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel.
have + ing = having
survive + al = survival
fortune + ate = fortunate
abuse + ive = abusive
Exceptions: words containing the soft sound g/c retain the e before suffixes -able or -ous (ex. courageous or changeable)
Retain the e in words that might be mistaken for other words if the rule were applied (ex. singe/singeing, dye/dyeing, shoe/shoeing)
Words ending in ie, drop the e and change the i to y when the suffix ing is added  – to prevent two i’s from coming together (ex. die/dying, tie/typing, lie/lying)
In the words mileage, acreage, lineage, the e is not dropped before the suffix -age.

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Lesson 77.

Words ending with ow, the last Letter being silent.

ar’row sal’low fel’low win’dow
har’row tal’1ow mel’low win’now
nar’row shal’low fal’low wid’ow
mar’row shad’ow mead’ow bor’row
spar’row el’bow bil’low mor’row

Ow Words – Silent Letters

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Lesson 74.

The Vowel in the last Syllable silent.

ba’con    sweet’en    dam’son     bit’ten
to’ken    trea’son    fat’ten     driv’en
bra’zen   weak’en     flax’en     kit’ten
ha’ven    wea’sel     glad’den    pris’on
ha’zel    height’en   hap’pen     quick’en
maid’en   light’en    mad’den     ris’en
ma’son    lik’en      rav’el      smit’ten
ra’ven    rip’en      sad’den     stiff’en
shak’en   tight’en    red’den     swiv’el
wea’zen   wid’en      fresh’en    writ’ten
tak’en    bro’ken     o’pen       fast’en
wak’en    clo’ven     leav’en     glis’ten
spok’en   froz’en     length’en   drunk’en
dea’con   gold’en     reck’on      mut’ton

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Lesson 40.

8. Regular Long Sound of E, as in eve, marked e.

feel   fe’male    wean     de’i ty
keel   pee’vish   these    de’cen cy
glee   que’ry     priest   e gre’gious
deem   nei’ther   cheer    fre’quen cy

9. Regular Short Sound of E, as in end, marked e.

ebb    pen’ny    sledge,   en’e my
fret   sec’ond   spread    rec’og nize
helm   ten’der   knelt     len’i ty
them   rec’tor   cleft     mem’o ry

Lesson 41.

10. Sound of E as in there, marked e, This corresponds with the sound of a
in care.

ne’er       par terre’   where up on’
where       ere long’    where un to’
there of’   there by’    where a bouts’
heir’ess    where at’    where with al’

11. Sound of E like a, as in prey, marked e.

they      neigh’bor   neigh’bor hood
whey      hei’nous    sur vey’or
freight   o bey’      pur vey’ance
deign     in veigh’   con vey’ance

Lesson 42.

12. Sound of E before r, verging toward the sound of u in urge, and marked

term    er’mine    terse    ter’ma gant
pearl   ear’ly     merge    per’son al
err     per’fect   yearn    mer’chan dise
learn   mer’cer    swerve   ser’mon ize

13. Regular Long Sound of I. as in ice, marked i.

fife     di’et     Christ   brib’er y
crime    qui’et    spice    di’a dem
shrine   fi’at     strive   li’a ble
thrive   pli’ant   slime    i’ci cle

Lesson 43.

14. Regular Short Sound of I, as in ill, marked i.

sting   piv’ot      spring   dif’fi dent
bliss   splin’ter   twitch   pin’a fore
inch    tin’der     thick    in’fa my
strip   wick’ed     sphinx   lit’ur gy
15. Sound of I like that of long e, as in pique, marked i.

pe tite’    fa tigue’    mag a zine’
an tique’   in trigue’   sub ma rine’
ca price’   po lice’     ver’di gris
fas cine’   va lise’     quar’an tine

Lesson 44.

16. Sound of I before r, verging toward u in urge, marked i.

stir    birth’right   girth    girl’ish ness
first   gird’le       thirst   mirth’ful ness
firm    irk’some      firth    thir’ti eth
skirt   vir’gin       smirch   flirt’ing ly

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Lesson 36.


In this lesson, and in the pages immediately following, will be found
forty-three exercises on the various sounds of the English language. Some
of these have been given already, but are repeated here for the more
thorough instruction of the pupil Let the teacher carefully discriminate
between the different sounds of the vowels, and fully drill the scholars
in their correct enunciation.
1. Regular Long Sound of A, marked a.

make    la’tent    brave   a base’ment
safe    cham’ber   crave   a bate’ment
gaze    pas’try    grave   ad ja’cent
saint   man’gy     shave   a wa’ken

Lesson 37.

2. Regular Short Sound of A, marked a.

span   ad’der    crack   can’di date
trap   an’vil    gland   cal’i co
plat   ban’ish   slack   grat’i tude
sham   bran’dy   plaid   mag’is trate
3. Sound of A before r in such words as air, care, marked a.

dare    af fair’    chair    trans par’ent
rare    de spair’   prayer   for bear’ance
flare   be ware’    scare    par’ent age
glare   com pare’   square   care’ful ness

Lesson 38.

4. Sound of the Italian A, as in arm, marked a.

farm   ar’bor    guard   ar’gu ment
harm   ar’mor    daunt   ar’ti choke
barn   bar’ber   harsh   car’di nal
yarn   car’go    jaunt   car’pen ter
5. Sound of A in certain words before ff, ft, ss, st, sk, sp, and in a few
before nce and nt, marked a, as in staff.

mass    chance      gasp     chan’cel lor
class   pass’port   quaff    chan’cer y
vast    mas’ter     chant    craft’i ness
task    graft’ed    prance   ad van’tage

Lesson 39.

6. Sound of broad A. as in all, marked a.

thrall   de bauch’   drawl    au’di ence
tall     de fault’   pawn     laud’a ble
wart     de fraud’   sprawl   plaus’i ble
awe      as sault’   warmth   talk’a tive

7. Short Sound of broad A, as in what, marked a.

wan      wan’ton     squash   squal’id ness
wand     wan’der     squab    was’ish ly
squat    squan’der   squad    watch’ful ness
wat’ch   wal’low     swamp    what ev’er

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