Archive for the ‘Definitions’ Category

Affixes – Basic Spelling Rules

Doubling the Final Letter and Exceptions
Lesson 139.

Spelling rule for ing words.

Ing signifies continuing to; as talking, continuing to talk. The following
words, in taking their suffix, double the final letter. The last letter is
doubled when the word ends with a single consonant preceded by a single

plan’ning   win’ning    stop’ping   a bet’ting
fret’ting   blot’ting   gun’ning    re bel’ling
bid’ding    rob’bing    shut’ting   o mit’ting

Other words ending with consonants, which do not double the final letter.

act’ing     fail’ing   mean’ing   ex pand’ing
land’ing    rain’ing   coax’ing   con sent’ing
build’ing   sail’ing   suit’ing   vis’it ing

SpellingTeaching SpellingSpelling Rules

Teaching Spelling


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Lesson 136.


Many words are formed by adding something to the end of another word. The added part is called an affix; as ly, added to man, forms manly. In this, and the following seventeen lessons, the more common affixes are indicated.

Plurals formed by adding s to the Singular.

roofs       so’los    ty’ros     al bi’nos
hoofs       ha’los    jun’tos    me men’tos
scarfs      las’sos   can’tos    oc ta’vos
truths      ze’ros    quar’tos   si roc’cos

Plurals formed by adding es to the Singular.

ech’oes     to ma’toes     po ta’toes
car’goes    mu lat’toes    bra va’does
mot’toes    vol ca’noes    por’ti coes
grot’toes   mos qui’toes   vi ra’goes

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List of Homophones Beginning With the letter D

Spelling Words that sound alike and are spelled differently.
dain, deign

dam (-s), damn (-s)

days, daze

dean (-s), dene (-s)

dear, deer

deem (-s), deme (-s)

delinquence, delinquents

dense, dents

dental, dentil

dependence, dependents

depravation (-s), deprivation (-s)

descent (-s), dissent (-s) (?)

deviance, deviants

devisor, divisor

dew (-s), do, due (-s)

dewed, dude

djinn, gin

die (-s), dye (-s)

died, dyed

dine, dyne

dire, dyer

disburse (-s), disperse (-s)

discreet, discrete

discussed, disgust

dissidence, dissidents

do [“re, mi”], doe, dough

doer, dour

does [f. deer], doze

done, dun

dos [“dos and don’ts”], dues

dost, dust

donjon, dungeon

dowiger (-s), dowitcher (-s)

draft (-s), draught (-s)

dray, drey

droop, drupe

dual, duel

ducked, duct

dyeing, dying

Spelling Homophones

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Learning Homophones – Words sounding alike but spelled differently.

Spelling Lesson 128.

pail, a wooden vessel.     Paul, a man’s name.
pale, not bright.          pall, a covering.
pear, a fruit.             pique, to give offense.
pare, to cut thin.         peak, the top.
pair, a couple.            peer, a nobleman.
raze, to pull down.        pier, a wharf
raise, to lift up.         quartz, a kind of rock.
rays, beams of light.      quarts, measures.
pain, uneasiness.          plain, smooth.
pane, a square of glass.   plane, a surface; tool.
peel, rind; skin.          quire, twenty-four sheets of paper.
peal, a sound of bells.
port, a harbor.            choir (kwir), a band of singers.
Porte, a Turkish court.

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Basic Spelling Rules – Double the final consonant rule

Double the final consonant rule. In one syllable words ending in one consonant preceded by one vowel, double the final consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel.
run + ing = running
big + est = biggest
hot + er = hotter
bag + age = baggage

Exceptions to the Double the final consonant spelling rules : if the word ends with two or more consonants, or if the final consonant is preceded by two vowels instead of one.
debt + or = debtor
boat + ing = boating

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Basic Spelling Rules – The “y to i” Rule

The “y to i” Rule. Words ending in y preceded by a consonant usually change the y to i before any suffic excpet one beginning with an i.
beauty + ful = beautiful
lady + es = ladies
accompany + ment = accompaniment
accompany + ing = accompanying
Exceptions: shyness; babyhood; wryly
If the final y  is preceded by a vowel, the rule does not apply: journeys, essays, obeying, repaying.

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Basic Spelling Rules – The final e Rule
The final e Rule. Words ending with a silent e usually drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel.
have + ing = having
survive + al = survival
fortune + ate = fortunate
abuse + ive = abusive
Exceptions: words containing the soft sound g/c retain the e before suffixes -able or -ous (ex. courageous or changeable)
Retain the e in words that might be mistaken for other words if the rule were applied (ex. singe/singeing, dye/dyeing, shoe/shoeing)
Words ending in ie, drop the e and change the i to y when the suffix ing is added  – to prevent two i’s from coming together (ex. die/dying, tie/typing, lie/lying)
In the words mileage, acreage, lineage, the e is not dropped before the suffix -age.

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