Archive for September, 2007

Affixes – Prefixes
Lesson 160.

Fore adds its own meaning to the word; as foretaste, to taste before; pre is from the Latin prae, before; ante (Latin), before. Anti (Greek), means against or opposite.

fore’sight   fore tell’er      fore bod’ing ly
fore’most    fore knowl’edge   fore de ter’mine
fore know’   fore’cas tle      pre med’i tate
pre fix’     pre cau’tion      pre oc’cu py
pre judge’   pre ced’ing       pre-em’i nent
pre serve’   pre des’tine      an te pas’chal
pre sage’    an’te past        an te mun’dane
pre text’    an’te date        an te nup’tial
fore warn’   an’ti pode        an ti cli’max
fore’front   an’ti dote        an ti feb’rile

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Affixes – Prefixes

Lesson 159.

Post is a Latin word, meaning after.

post’script    post-di lu’vi an    post me rid’i an
post’-date     post po si’tion     post’hu mous ly

Other words are formed by prefixing the English word post, a letter-carrier.

post’al         post’man      post’mark
post’-chaise    post’-town    post’-office
post-haste’     post’boy      post’mas ter

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The prefix after conveys its own meaning.

aft’er piece    aft’er noon    aft’er most
aft’er guard    aft’er math    aft’er-thought

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Lesson 158.

Dis is a Latin particle, and has the force of a negative or privative; as,
disagree, not to agree, disarm, to deprive of arms.

dis please’   dis ap pear’    dis con tin’ue
dis joint’    dis be lieve’   dis in her’it
dis lodge’    dis o blige’    dis or’gan ize
dis charge’   dis cour’age    dis sim’i lar
dis grace’    dis cov’er      dis crim’i nate

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Lesson 157.

In, also, has a negative meaning; it often becomes im, il, ir, or ig, for
the sake of sound.

in act’ive   in sin cere’   ir res’o lute
im prop’er   im po lite’    ir re lig’ious
il le’gal    il lu’sive     irre spect’ive
ig no’ble    ig’no rant     ir’ri ta ble

im ma te ri al’i ty         im prac ti ca bil’i ty
in di vis i bil’i ty        in de struc ti bil’i ty
in com pat i bil’i ty       ir re sist i bil’i ty
in com press i bil’i ty     im pen e tra bil’i ty

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Bene is a Latin prefix, signifying well.

ben’e dict     ben e fac’tion    be nef’i cence
ben’e fice     ben e fi’cial     be nev’o lence

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When a word consists of two syllables one of them receives more stress of
voice than the other. This stress of voice is called accent. If the word
consists of three or more syllables there is usually another syllable
stressed in somewhat less degree. This is called a secondary accent. In
some cases there may even be a third accent if the word is very long;
_In’-come_, _val-e-tu’-di-na’-ri-an_. This fact arises from the tendency
natural to all human speech to take more or less musical forms. The
monotony of a series of stressed or of unstressed sounds would be
unbearable. The pronunciation of such a series would be a highly artificial
and very difficult performance. Correct pronunciation is very greatly
concerned with the proper placing of the accent. Indeed the meaning of a
familiar word may be quite obscured by a misplaced accent. For example,
_he-red’-it-ary_ is a very familiar word, but when pronounced
_he-red-it’-ary_, as it was habitually by a friend of the author, we have
to stop and think before catching the meaning.

The placing of the accent in English is subject to two general rules.

     I  The accent clings to the syllable which gives the meaning to the
     word, or in technical terms, the root syllable, _re-call’_,
     _in-stall’_, _in-stal-la’-tion_ (accent falling on the syllable
     which defines the word as a noun), _in-her’-it_.

     II  Where the root syllable is not known the accent falls on the
     first syllable, with secondary accents following at intervals to
     relieve the voice.

This last tendency not infrequently supersedes the other, partly from the
natural habit of the language, and partly because the average man is not an
etymologist and knows very little about the derivation of the words he
uses. For example, in Shakespeare’s time English people followed the first
rule and said _re-ven’-ue_, but now we say _rev’-e-nue_.

These two rules will serve as a good general guide to accent. Attention
should be paid to the pronunciation of good speakers, and care taken to
follow it. In case of doubt the dictionary should be consulted and the
proper accent carefully fixed in the mind.

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