Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for March, 2007

RULES FOR THE DIVISION OF WORDS
I

American usage tends to the termination _-ize_ where English usage often
sanctions _-ise_. Use the termination _-ise_ in

advertise
advise
appraise
apprise (_to inform_)
arise
chastise
circumcise
comprise
compromise
demise
devise
disfranchise
disguise
emprise
enfranchise
enterprise
exercise
exorcise
franchise
improvise
incise
merchandise
premise
reprise
revise
rise
supervise
surmise
surprise

Read Full Post »

Lesson 74.

The Vowel in the last Syllable silent.

ba’con    sweet’en    dam’son     bit’ten
to’ken    trea’son    fat’ten     driv’en
bra’zen   weak’en     flax’en     kit’ten
ha’ven    wea’sel     glad’den    pris’on
ha’zel    height’en   hap’pen     quick’en
maid’en   light’en    mad’den     ris’en
ma’son    lik’en      rav’el      smit’ten
ra’ven    rip’en      sad’den     stiff’en
shak’en   tight’en    red’den     swiv’el
wea’zen   wid’en      fresh’en    writ’ten
tak’en    bro’ken     o’pen       fast’en
wak’en    clo’ven     leav’en     glis’ten
spok’en   froz’en     length’en   drunk’en
dea’con   gold’en     reck’on      mut’ton

Read Full Post »

Spelling Games

Letter Fill Game

Provide the first and last letter and let children make as many words as possible by completing the middle letters.

b __ __ d

f __ __ d

s __ __ k

h __ __ d

s __ __ p

Read Full Post »

Spelling

Homophones 

Lesson 73.

hart, the male deer.            hour, sixty minutes.
heart, the seat of life.        our, belonging to us.
hear, to perceive by the ear    in, within.
                                inn, a hotel.
here, in this place.            key, a fastener.
heard, did hear.                quay (ke), a wharf.
herd, a drove.                  rhyme, poetry.
hie, to hasten.                 rime, white frost.
high, lofty.                    knot, a fastening of cord.
him, objective case of he.
hymn, a song of praise.         not, negation.
hole, an opening.               know, to understand.
whole, all; entire.             no, not so.

Read Full Post »

SPELLING

From “Division of Words

The idea that there is one right way to combine the letters representing a
certain sound or group of sounds, that is a word, and that all other ways
are wrong and little short of shameful is a comparatively new idea among
us. The English speaking folk held down to a comparatively recent time that
any group of letters which approximately represented the sound was amply
sufficient as a symbol of the word. This sort of phonetic spelling was
commonly followed, and followed with great freedom. No obligation was
recognized to be consistent. In ordinary writing, such as letters and the
like, it is not unusual to find the same word spelled in a variety of ways
in the same document.

The last century has brought about an attempt to standardize spelling into
conventional forms any departure from which is regarded as highly
derogatory to the writer. In many cases these forms are fixed arbitrarily,
and in some there is even now disagreement among the highest authorities.
These difficulties and disagreements have two reasons: First, English is a
composite language, drawn from many sources and at many periods; hence
purely philological and etymological influences intervene, sometimes with
marked results, while there is a difference of opinion as to how far these
influences ought to prevail. Second, the English language uses an alphabet
which fits it very badly. Many letters have to do duty for the expression
of several sounds, and sometimes several of them have nearly or quite the
same sound. For example, there are a number of distinct sounds of _a_, _i_,
and _o_ while _g_ is sometimes indistinguishable from _j_ and _c_ from _k_.
This is not always a matter of modification of sounds by the sounds of
other letters combined with them. One has to learn how to pronounce
_cough_, _dough_, _enough_, and _plough_, the _ough_ having four distinct
sounds in these four words. Each one of these sounds, by the way, could be
exactly as well represented by another combination of letters which would
be unmistakable, viz., _coff_, _doe_, _enuff_, and _plow_. It is impossible
to tell except by the context either the pronunciation or the meaning of
_bow_. If the _ow_ is pronounced as in _low_, it means a weapon. If the
_ow_ is pronounced as in _cow_ it may mean either an obeisance or the front
end of a boat.

This standardization of spelling is unfortunately not quite complete,
although nearly so. Concerning the vast majority of the words in the
English language there is no difference of opinion. A few words are
differently spelled by different authorities. There are seven of these
authorities of the first rank, three English, Stormonth, the Imperial
Dictionary, and the Oxford Dictionary; and four American, Webster’s
International, Worcester, the Century Dictionary, and the Standard
Dictionary. American printers may ordinarily disregard the English
authorities.

Any one of the four American authorities may be safely followed. In cases
where two spellings are given in the dictionary consulted, take the first
one. Ordinarily a printing office adopts one of the great authorities as a
standard and conforms the office style to it. All office copy will follow
it and all errors in copy from outside will be corrected by it. Spellings
differing from it will be regarded as errors, even though supported by
other authorities.

This rule, however, is subject to one very important exception. The author
has an unquestionable right to choose his own dictionary or to use any
spelling for which there is any authority, English or American. If he has
his own ideas on the subject of spelling he should be very careful that his
manuscript is correctly spelled according to his ideas, and clearly written
or typed. He should also indicate on the manuscript the authority he wishes
used in correcting the spelling in case of mistakes or illegible passages.
Every care should be taken to make the manuscript copy as correct as
possible and as legible as possible. Such care may be very troublesome at
first, but it will result in great saving of expense.

In addition to the authorities named there are the rules and “reformed”
spellings adopted by the American Philological Association and published by
the United States Government. These are followed fully in some offices,
partly in others, and in many not at all. This is a question of the office
style and the author’s wish. If copy is clear and spelled according to any
authority, it is the compositor’s duty to follow it. If it is misspelled or
illegible he is to correct it according to the office style unless
otherwise directed by the author in writing. If furnished with such a
direction he is to follow it. This procedure will clear the compositor of
all blame. Any questions which then arise lie between the author and the
proofreader.

In the case of the reformed spellings, however, the departure from the
ordinary appearance of the words is so great that the author cannot be
allowed full freedom to set aside the office style. If he is paying for the
printing he may insist on his spelling. If he is contributing to a
periodical and the printing is done at the publisher’s expense it is for
the publisher to determine the style of printing to be used.

Any full consideration of the question of reformed spelling is hardly in
place in this book. The author may perhaps be permitted one observation.
Innovation in the use of the English language would appear to be primarily
the work of scholars, and the adoption of such innovations would seem to
belong to the book printer rather than to the commercial printer. The
public mind as a whole is conservative. It is not hospitable to changes and
does not soon become aware of them, much less familiar with them. The
commercial printer makes his appeal to the mind of the general public. He
will do well to use a vehicle familiar, intelligible, and acceptable to it.

Correct spelling is mainly a matter of habit and observation. To a certain
extent it is a matter of careful pronunciation, but this is not always a
safe or even a possible guide. The vowels preceding or following the one on
which the primary accent falls, sometimes called obscure vowels, are so
slurringly pronounced that even a pedantic precision will hardly make it
possible to indicate clearly which vowel is used. The writer remembers
seeing an examination paper written by a fourth year medical student in
which the word _fever_ was spelled _fevor_. A moment’s thought will show
that so far as pronunciation is concerned the word might be spelled
_fevar_, _fevir_, _fevor_, _fever_, or _fevur_ without any appreciable
difference. The correct spelling is merely a matter of observation.

The author has on his desk at the moment of writing these lines half a
dozen good books, each containing a set of rules for spelling. From these
it would be easy to compile a set of fairly good rules. Each of these
rules, however, has exceptions, in some cases quite numerous. To remember
these rules with their exceptions would be a considerable mental task and
to apply them would be cumbrous and time consuming. The effort would
probably resolve itself into an actual learning of the words which present
difficulties. The best way to become a good speller is to form the habit
of careful reading, observing the form of every word as it passes before
the eye and so unconsciously fixing it in the memory. The dictionary should
be consulted whenever there is any doubt.

If you are to write a word, call up a mental picture of it, and if the
picture is not perfectly clear go to the dictionary and fix a correct image
of it in your mind. Be careful to pronounce every word you use as correctly
as possible and you will get all the aid pronunciation can give you.
Careless speaking and careless reading are the two great sources of
incorrect spelling.

The following tables will be found useful in settling practice with regard
to certain troublesome classes of words.

Read Full Post »

DIVISION OF WORDS
The division of words when the words do not exactly fit the register of the line has always been a source of trouble. In the days of the manuscript makers devices such as crowding letters, reducing their size, or omitting them altogether were freely used and words were arbitrarily divided when the scribes so desired. During the greater part of the time every scribe divided as he pleased, often in ways which seem very strange to us, like the Greek custom of dividing always after a vowel and even dividing words of one syllable. With the invention of printing, however, the number of these devices was greatly diminished. It became a matter of spacing out the line or dividing the word. Of course that meant frequent word division and called for a systematization of rules with regard to this division. These rules for division are necessarily based on spelling and syllabication.

Read Full Post »

Where reference is made to “Division of Words” the reference is a book called

Division of Words, by Frederick W. Hamilton

Title: Division of Words
       Rules for the Division of Words at the Ends of Lines, with
       Remarks on Spelling, Syllabication and Pronunciation
TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL SERIES FOR APPRENTICES–PART VI. NO. 35
DIVISION OF
WORDS
RULES FOR THE DIVISION OF WORDS AT
THE ENDS OF LINES, WITH REMARKS
ON SPELLING, SYLLABICATION
AND PRONUNCIATION
BY

FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, LL.D.

EDUCATIONAL DIRECTOR
UNITED TYPOTHETÆ OF AMERICA
PUBLISHED BY THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA
1918
COPYRIGHT, 1918
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA
CHICAGO, ILL.
PREFACE
The principal purpose of this book is to give in brief form the rules and
usages governing the division of words when the measure will not permit
ending the word and the line together. This matter is considered in its
relation to good spacing and to the legibility of the printed page.

Leading up to the discussion will be found some consideration of spelling,
the formation of syllables, pronunciation, and accent. This consideration
is necessarily brief, and no attempt has been made to give the rules for
spelling which are so frequently found in spelling books, or any of them.
In the writer’s opinion such rules are of very little practical value. Good
spelling is not so much the result of remembering and applying rules as it
is of observation, practice, and memory. The lists of certain types of
troublesome words may be found useful for ready reference.

Syllable formation, pronunciation, and accent are considered because it is
hoped that the volumes of this series, particularly those in Part VI
(Correct Literary Composition) and Part VIII (History of Printing), will
contribute something to the general education of the apprentice as well as
to his skill in the trade.
CONTENTS
SPELLING

PRONUNCIATION

ACCENT

DIVISION OF WORDS

RULES FOR DIVISION OF WORDS

IMPORTANCE OF SPACING

DIVISION IN LINES OF DISPLAY

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »